EI Meta-WP Series

EINITE Meta-WP Series


This Meta-Working Paper series lists working papers on the history of economic inequality published in official working papers series worldwide. Only contributions written in English and published online since 2010 are included. Papers concerning the period from 1950 until today are included only if they cover at least 40 years of history. If you prefer your paper be removed from the list, or to suggest the inclusion of a paper, please email: guido.alfani@unibocconi.it.

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Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Historical Patterns of Inequality and Productivity around Financial Crises Pascal 1870-2013 February, 2018
Globalization and Income Inequality Revisited Dorn, Fuest, Potrafke 1970-2014 January, 2018
Poor country, rich history, many lessons: The evolution of wealth-income ratios in India 1860-2012 Rishabh 1860-2012 January, 2018
Intergenerational mobility in the 19th century: micro-level evidence from the city of Zurich Favre, Floris, Woitek 1780-1870 January, 2018



Title Author(s)Period CoveredDate
Philippine Inequality across the Twentieth Century: Slim Evidence but Fat QuestionsWilliamson1903-2000December, 2017
Distribution, wealth and demand regimes in historical perspective. USA, UK, France and Germany, 1855-2010 Stockhammer, Rabinovich, Reddy1855-2010November, 2017
Household Wealth Trends in the United States, 1962 to 2016: Has Middle Class Wealth Recovered?Wolff1960-2016November, 2017
Inequality in an Equal SocietyHarvey, Mierau, Rockey1962-2016November, 2017
Inequality, Foreign Investment, and ImperialismHauner, Milanovic, Naidu1860-1914November, 2017
Indian income inequality, 1922-2014: From British Raj to Billionaire Raj ?Chancel, Piketty1922-2014October, 2017
Is inequality increasing in r-g? Piketty’s principle of capitalist economics and the dynamics of inequality in Britain, 1210-2013Madsen1210-2013October, 2017
The Dynamics of Inequality in the Human Story: A Brief SketchWisman October, 2017
The Rise and Future of Progressive RedistributionLindert1870-2010October, 2017
What Really Happened to British Inequality in the Early 20th Century? Evidence from National Household Expenditure Surveys 1890–1961 Gazeley, Newell, Reynolds, Rufrancos1980-1961October, 2017
Ethnic Differences in Demographic Behavior in the United States: What Can We Learn from Vital Statistics about Inequality?Haines1920-2017September, 2017
How does inequality affect long-run growth?Gutiérrez-Romero1820-2010September, 2017
Kuznets Curve for the US: A Reconsideration Using CosummabilityAdnen, Balcilar, Akadiri, Gupta 1917-2012September, 2017
Consumption and Income Inequality in the U.S. Since the 1960sMeyer, Sullivan1960-2014August, 2017
Educational inequality and intergenerational mobility in Latin America: A new databasNeidhöfer, Serrano, Gasparini 1940-1990August, 2017
From Soviets to Oligarchs: Inequality and Property in Russia, 1905-2016Novokmet, Piketty, Zucman1905-2016August, 2017
Income and Wealth Inequality in America, 1949-2013Kuhn, Schularick, Steins1943-2013August, 2017
Income Concentration in British India, 1885-1946 Alvaredo, Bergeron, Cassan1885-1946June, 2017
Politics, Not Economics, Ultimately Drives InequalityWisman1945-2017June, 2017
Global Earnings Inequality, 1970–2015Hammar, Waldenström1970-2015May, 2017
Capital Accumulation, Private Property and Rising Inequality in China, 1978-2015Piketty, Yang, Zucman1978-2015April, 2017
Income Inequality in France, 1900-2014: Evidence from Distributional National AccountsGarbinti,  Goupille-Lebret, Piketty1900-2014April, 2017
Immigration and the Rise of American IngenuityAkcigit, Grigsby, Nicholas1880-2000March, 2017
Income inequality in New Zealand, 1935 to 2014Creedy, Gemmell, Nguyen1935-2013March, 2017
Evolution of Tax Progressivity in the U.S.: New Estimates and Welfare ImplicationsNavarro, Ferriere, Feenberg 1960-2008February, 2017
On the Measurement of Long-Run Income Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Norway, 1875-2013Aaberge, Atkinson, Modalsli1875-2013February, 2017
Accounting for Wealth Inequality Dynamics: Methods, Estimates and Simulations for France (1800-2014)Garbinti,  Goupille-Lebret, Piketty1800-2014January, 2017
Australian Exceptionalism? Inequality and Living Standards 1821-1871Panza, Williamson1821-1871January, 2017
Between Malthus and the industrial take-off: regional inequality in Sweden, 1571-1850Enflo, Missiaia1571-1850January, 2017
Constructing equality? : Women’s wages for physical labor, 1550-1759Gary1550-1759January, 2017
Income Inequality in Colonial Africa: Building Social Tables for Pre-Independence Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, and SenegalAlfani, Tadei1939-2015January, 2017
Inheritance Flows in Switzerland, 1911-2011Bruhlart, Dupertuis, Moreau1911-2011January, 2017
The Wealth of the Richest: Inequality and the Nobility in Sweden, 1750–1900Bengtsson, Missiaia, Olsson, Svensson1750-1900January, 2017
Top Wealth Shares in the UK over more than a CenturyAlvaredo, Atkinson, Morelli1895-2016January, 2017


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Distributional National Accounts: Methods and Estimates for the United States Piketty, Saez, Zucman 1913-2016 December, 2016
Inequality, Financial Development and Economic Growth in the OECD, 1870-2011 Madsen, Islam, Doucouliagos 1870-2011 December, 2016
Purchasing Power Disparity before 1914 Lindert <1914 December, 2016
The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940 Chetty, Grusky, Hell, Hendren, Manduca, Narang 1940-2010 December, 2016
The Rise of the Working Rich, Market Imperfections, and Income Inequality Chhy 1950-2013 December, 2016
Wealth and inequality in eight centuries of British capitalism Madsen 1210-2013 December, 2016
Towards an explanation of inequality in pre-modern societies:the role of colonies and high population density Milanovic 330 BCE-1938 November, 2016
On the measurement of long-run income inequality. Empirical evidence from Norway, 1875-2013 Aaberge, Atkinson, Modalsli  1875-2013 October, 2016
Pareto and the upper tail of the income distribution in the UK: 1799 to the present Atkinson 1799-2016 October, 2016
Reversal of the Kuznets curve: Study on the inequality–development relation using top income shares data Tuominen 1900-2010 September, 2016
Two different sources of inequalities: profits and rents in advanced market economies Mihalyi, Szelenyi 1965-2015 August, 2016
What is the Contribution of Intra-household Inequality to Overall Income Inequality? Evidence from Global Data, 1973-2013 Malghan, Swaminathan 1973-2013 August, 2016
The paradox of land reform, inequality and local development in Colombia Faguet, Sanches, Villaveces 1961-2010 July, 2016
Regional human capital inequality in Europe in the long run, 1850 – 2010 Diebolt, Hippe 1850-2010 June, 2016
The regional dispersion of income inequality in nineteenth-century Norway Modalsli 1814-1900 June, 2016
Inequality and the New Deal Belabed 1913-1941 May, 2016
Income Distribution in Prewar Japan Okazaki  1885-1940 April, 2016
Intergenerational mobility in the very long run: Florence 1427-2011 Barone, Mocetti 1427-2011 April, 2016
Trends in Mediterranean Inequalities 1950-2015 Daniele, Malanima 1950-2015 April, 2016
Comparing Income and Wealth Inequality in Pre-Industrial Economies: Lessons from 18th-Century Spain Nicolini, Ramos Palencia 1750 March, 2016
Explaining regional inequality from the periphery: The mexican case, 1900-2000 Retureta 1900-2000 March, 2016
The rich in historical perspective. Evidence for preindustrial Europe (ca. 1300-1800) Alfani 1300-1800 March, 2016
Inequality and the working class in Scandinavia 1800 to 1910 - Workers' share of growing income Bengtsson 1800-1910 January, 2016
The Accumulation, Inheritance, and Concentration of Wealth during the Gilded Age: An Exception to Thomas Piketty’s Analysis Sutch 1870-1817 January, 2016
The Effect of a Massive Wage Push on Income Distribution and Employment. Evidence from the 1920 Eight-Hour Workday Reform in Sweden and Its Aftermath Bengtsson, Molinder 1910-1929 January, 2016


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Income distribution in rural Buenos Aires, 1839-1867 Bértola, Gelman, Such 1839-1867 December, 2015
The One-Percent across Two Centuries: A Replication of Thomas Piketty’s Data on the Distribution of Wealth for the United States Sutch 1810-2010 December, 2015
Family Patterns and Social Inequality among Children in the United States 1940-2012: A Re-assessment Fahey  1940-2012 December, 2015
Capital shares and income inequality: Evidence from the long run Bengtsson, Waldenstrom 1870-2000 December, 2015
Private Wealth in a Developing Country: A South African Perspective on Piketty Orthofer 1970-2010 November, 2015
A closer look at the long-term patterns of regional income inequality in Spain: the poor stay poor (and stay together) Tirado-Fabregat, Diez-Minguela , Martinez-Galarraga 1860-2010 October, 2015
Gender income disparity in the USA: analysis and dynamic modelling Kitov, Kitov 1930-2014 October, 2015
Wealth-income ratios in a small, late-industrializing, welfare-state economy: Sweden, 1810–2014 Waldenstrom 1810-2014 October, 2015
The Political Economy of the Top 1% in an Age of Turbulence: Chile 1913-1973 Weber 1913-1973 September, 2015
The evolution of wealth inequality over half a century: the role of skills, taxes and institutions Poschke, Kaymak 1960-2010 September, 2015
What Drives Inequality? Wisman 1950-2013 September, 2015
Was there a ‘Little Convergence’ in inequality? Italy and the Low Countries compared, ca. 1500-1800 Alfani, Ryckbosch 1500-1800 September, 2015
Income Distribution and the Great Depression Belabed 1920-1929 June, 2015
Convergence in Income Inequality: Further Evidence from the Club Clustering Methodology across the U.S. States Apergis, Christou, Gupta, Miller 1929-2009 June, 2015
Land Access Inequality and Education in Pre-industrial Spain Beltrán Tapia, Martínez-Galarraga 1860 May, 2015
Income inequality in China: Testing the Kuznets Hypothesis with National Time Series and Provincial Panel Data 1978-2011 Cheng, Wu 1978-2011 May, 2015
Persistence vs. Reversal and Agglomeration Economies vs. Natural Resources. Regional inequality in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century Aráoz, Nicolini 1914-1953 May, 2015
Inequality and poverty in a developing economy: Evidence from regional data (Spain, 1860-1930) Beltran Tapia, Martinez-Galarrage  1860-1930 May, 2015
National income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland in a global perspective Malinowski, Van Zanden 1410-1910 May, 2015
Income inequality in Chile since 1850 Rodríguez, Weber  1850-2009 April, 2015
Historical   Patterns   of   Gender   Inequality   in   Latin  America:   New Evidence Camou 1940-2000 April, 2015
A spectre has haunted the west: did socialism discipline income inequality? Albuquerque Sant'Anna 1960-2010 April, 2015
Regional income distribution in Mexico: new long-term evidence, 1895-2010 Aguilar-Retureta  1895–2010 April, 2015
Functional Inequality in Latin America: News from the Twentieth Century Astorga 1900-2011 April, 2015
Changing Income Inequality and Structural Transformation The Case of Botswana 1921-2010 Hillbom, Bolt 1921-2010 March, 2015
Long-term trends in income distribution a global perspective Obst 1960-2012 February, 2015
Industrial Structure, Prefectural Inequality, and Convergence in Pre-war Japan (1874-1940) Settsu 1874-1940 February, 2015
The Income Distribution in the UK: A Picture of Advantage and Disadvantage Jenkins 1961-2013 February, 2015
Latin American Inequality: Colonial Origins, Commodity Booms, or a Missed 20th Century Leveling? Williamson 1492-2013 January, 2015
A Colonial Legacy of African Gender Inequality? Evidence from Christian Kampala, 1895-2011 Meier zu Selhausen, Weisdorf 1895-2011 January, 2015




Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Economic inequality and poverty in the very long run: The case of the Florentine State  (late thirteenth-early nineteenth centuries) Alfani, Ammannati 1277-1792 December, 2014
What Do We Know About Evolution of Top Wealth Shares in the United States? Kopczuk 1913-2013 December, 2014
Cooperating against inequality? War and commons in Renaissance Lombardy Di Tullio 1476-1559 December, 2014
Economic inequality and growth before the industrial revolution: A case study of the Low Countries (14th-19th centuries) Ryckbosch 1350-1850 November, 2014
Wealth Inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from Capitalized Income Tax Data Saez, Zucman 1913-2013 October, 2014
Inequality and Wealth Creation in Ancient History: Malthus' Theory Reconsidered Svizzero, Tisdell   September, 2014
Inherited wealth over the path of development: Sweden, 1810–2010 Ohlsson, Roine, Waldenstrom 1810-2010 August, 2014
Inequality is bad for growth of the poor (but not for that of the rich) van der Weide, Milanovic 1960-2010 July, 2014
Wealth and Inheritance in the Long Run Piketty, Zucman 1750-2013 July, 2014
Long run trends in the distribution of income and wealth Roine, Waldenstrom 1870-2010 April, 2014
Economic inequality in northwestern Italy: A long-term view (fourteenth to eighteenth centuries) Alfani 1300-1800 March, 2014
The Wages of Women in England, 1260-1850 Humphries, Weisdorf 1260-1850 March, 2014
The colonial legacy Atkinson 1917-1990 February, 2014
Gender Discrimination in Property Rights Casari, Lisciandra 1200-1900 January, 2014
Inequality and biological welfare during the mining boom: Rio Tinto, 1836-1935 Martínez-Carrión, Pérez de Perceval Verde, Soto 1836-1935 January, 2014
Evolution of Land Distribution in West Bengal 1967-2004: Role of Land Reform and Demographic Changes Bardhan, Luca, Mookherjee, Pino 1967-2004 January, 2014
Global interpersonal inequality : trends and measurement Niño-Zarazúa, Roope, Tarp 1975-2005 January, 2014
American colonial incomes 1650-1774 Lindert, Williamson 1650-1774 January, 2014


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Surnames and social mobility: England 1230-2012 Clark, Cummins 1230-2012 November, 2013
Wealth and Inheritance in Britain from 1896 to the Present Atkinson 1896-2006 November, 2013
Inequality from a global perspective: An alternative approach Edward, Summers   August, 2013
Inequality (un)perceived: The emergence of a discourse on economic inequality from the Middle Ages to the Age of Revolutions Alfani, Frigeni 1100-1830 July, 2013
East of Eden: Polish living standards in a European perspective, ca. 1500-1800 Malinowski 1500-1800 June, 2013
Russian Serfdom, Emancipation, and Land Inequality: New Evidence Nafziger 1858-1905 May, 2013
The top 1 percent in International and Historical Perspective Alvaredo, Atkinson, Piketty, Saez 1913-2011 May, 2013
If Technology Has Arrived Everywhere, Why Has Income Diverged? Comin, Mestieri 1820-2000 April, 2013
Top Wealth Shares in Australia 1915-2012 Katic 1915-2012 March, 2013
The First Great Divergence and the Evolution of Cross-Country Income Inequality during the Last Millennium: the Role of Institutions and Culture Madsen, Yan 950-1850 March, 2013
The long-run history of income inequality in Denmark: Top incomes from 1870 to 2010 Atkinson, Søgaard 1870-2010 February, 2013


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Coping with regional inequality in Sweden : structural change, migrations and policy, 1860-2000 Enflo, Roses 1860-2000 October, 2012
Financial Reforms and Income Inequality Agnello, Mallick, Sousa 1973-2005 October, 2012
American incomes 1774-1860 Lindert, Williamson 1774-1860 September, 2012
Land Markets and Inequality: Evidence from Medieval England Bekar, Reed 1086-1280 May, 2012
Wealth and inequality in Italy d'Alessio 1965-2010 February, 2012
The development of inequality and poverty in Indonesia, 1932-1999 Leeuwen, Foldvari 1932-1999 January, 2012



Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Inequality of Wealth in the Ottoman Empire: War, Weather, and Long-term Trends in Eighteenth Century Kastamonu Cosgel, Ergene 1713-1802 December, 2011
Economic crises and Inequalities Atkinson, Morelli 1910-2010 November, 2011
Global inequality: from class to location, from proletarians to migrants Milanovic, Branko   September, 2011
Real wages at the Cape of Good Hope: A long-term perspective, 1652-1912 de Zwart 1652-1912 August, 2011
Wage Inequality and the Labor Market Impact of Economic Transformation: Croatia, 1970-2008 Hoffman 1970-2008 August, 2011
The rise and fall of income inequality in Latin America Gasparini, Lustig   August, 2011
Intergenerational inequalities since baby-boom Clerc, Monso, Pouliquen 1960-2010 June, 2011
A History With Evidence: Income inequality in the Dutch Cape Colony Fourie, von Fintel 1700-1757 April, 2011
Inequality and growth in the very long run: inferring inequality from data on social groups Modalsli, Jørgen 1 - 1947 March, 2011
The Long Trace of Inequality: Evidence from Cundinamarca, Colombia Galán 1879-2005 February, 2011
The inequality trap. A comparative analysis of social spending between 1880 and 1933 Espuelas 1880-1933 January, 2011
African Real Wages in Asian Perspective, 1880-1940 Frankema, van Waijenburg 1880-1940 January, 2011


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective Chilosi 1820-2001 December, 2010
Main Characteristics of the Hungarian Income Inequality as Shown by the Data of the Income Surveys Carried out by the CSO in the Last Half Century Elteto, Havasi 1959-2004 November, 2010
The long-term patterns of regional income inequality in Spain (1860-2000) Rosés, Tirado, Galarraga 1860-2000 October, 2010
The Fruit of the Vine? An Augmented Endowments-Inequality Hypothesis and the Rise of an Elite in the Cape Colony Fourie, Johan, von Fintel, Dieter 1663-1773 October, 2010
Income inequality in central Spain, 1690-1800 Caballero 1690-1800 October, 2010
Violent Conflict and Inequality Bircan, Brück, Vothknecht 1960-2005 May, 2010

















Last updated 13 March 2018 - 14:56:16